C-section Deliveries in Pennsylvania, 1999 - Top 15 Factors Contributing to C-section Deliveries

  1. Previous C-section
  2. Breech - fetus positioned buttocks down toward the birth canal rather than the normal head down position
  3. High head at term - failure of the fetal head to enter the pelvic brim
  4. Transverse or oblique presentation - fetus positioned horizontally in the uterus causing the shoulder to enter the birth canal first
  5. Pre-eclampsia (severe) - condition developing late in pregnancy characterized by a sudden rise in blood pressure, excessive, weight gain, generalized swelling, albumin in the urine, severe headache and visual disturbances
  6. Placenta previa - placenta implanted at or near the cervical opening
  7. Multiple gestation with malpresentation of one fetus or more - two or more fetuses present in the uterus with at least one fetus in an abnormal position for birth
  8. Other specified malposition - other abnormal positions of the fetus in the uterus including compound presentation (multiple body parts are positioned to enter the birth canal simultaneously)
  9. Chorioamnionitis - inflammation of fetal membranes most commonly due to bacterial or viral infection
  10. Premature separation of placenta - placenta (entirely or only a portion) separates from the uterine wall prematurely (also called placental abruption)
  11. Prolapsed cord - presentation of the umbilical cord through the cervix prior to the fetus
  12. Obstruction from malpositioned fetus at onset of labor - fetus unable to pass through the birth canal due to an abnormal position
  13. Mild pre-eclampsia - see pre-eclampsia (severe)
  14. Oligohydramnios - decreased amount of amniotic fluid
  15. Gestational diabetes - increased blood sugar resulting from pregnancy hormones that cause a resistance to insulin (develops during pregnancy and disappears after delivery)